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appraisal and evaluation

Supporting better investment and policy decisions by preparing comprehensive business cases and evaluating the value for money

We offer comprehensive appraisal and evaluation services to assist our clients in making informed decisions that drive positive environmental and economic outcomes. Together we address critical questions such as:


  • What is the best value for money option when all costs and benefits are considered?

  • Have we achieved the benefits we set out to achieve?

  • Is ‘do nothing’ a viable option?

  • What makes the cost of action proportionate?


We provide practical support throughout the decision-making process, from setting objectives to evaluating options and comparing costs and benefits against the appropriate baseline. Depending on the decision context, we use:


Cost-Benefit Analysis: To help answer the fundamental question of whether action is justified based on generating positive net benefits, and if so, which option offers the best value.  


Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: To identify the option that delivers the highest benefit per pound spent, or the least costly option, particularly when determining how to achieve a predefined objective or how to spend a given budget.


Impact Assessment: To consider broader implementation-related issues, such as competitiveness and equity, in addition to costs and benefits.


Evaluation Framework: To develop a clear theory of change for proposed actions and assess their effectiveness through empirical evidence, identifying both outputs and outcomes.


Our appraisal and evaluation projects often involve multidisciplinary collaboration, ensuring that the changes that we quantify, predict or verify are well understood, measured and communicated.


We have undertaken projects across many areas of the environment and policy areas including: 


Marine environment: Our team has contributed to the designation of marine Natura 2000 sites and the implementation of the EU Marine Strategic Framework Directive, ensuring the conservation and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. More recently, we have been assessing marine natural capital to help with planning decisions and nature market (e.g. marine Biodiversity Net gain) design.


Flood and coastal erosion risk management: We offer insights into the environmental benefits of natural flood management options, such as managed realignment, to mitigate flood and coastal erosion risks.


Energy and air pollution: Our analysis focuses on understanding the impacts of marine renewable energy generation, assessing the effects of air pollution on human health and benefits from vegetation cover for cleaner air quality.


Infrastructure investments: We conduct customer research and cost-benefit analysis for major infrastructure projects like the Thames Tideway tunnel design to manage combined sewer overflows. We assess the local landscape and community impacts of projects such as the High Speed 2 line to ensure sustainable development practices.


Water and wastewater management: Supporting water company business plans and the Periodic Review process, while also considering the social capital impacts of customer relations and engagement. We were involved in the development and implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, and now in the design and evaluation of the UK equivalent legislation.


Value of information: contributing to business cases for projects that improve access to information by identifying uses of information, returns to better information and saving time from better access from environmental monitoring to company related financial and non-financial reporting.


Some of our clients for this service include:


Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), Thames Water, European Commission, Welsh Government, Scottish Government, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), Environment Agency and Children's Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF), Geospatial Commission (part of the Department for Science, Innovation and Technology, Companies House, Department for Business and Trade.

Contact Person: Allan Provins

Bluefish: potential impacts of climate change on coastal communities - Literature review and scientific report

Bluefish: potential impacts of climate change on coastal communities - Literature review and scientific report

project for:

The Marine Institute

Cost Benefit Analysis of the Marine Environmental Data & Information Network (MEDIN)

Cost Benefit Analysis of the Marine Environmental Data & Information Network (MEDIN)

project for:


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